Hagia Sophia in Constantinople -- now Istanbul.
The Byzantine (East Roman) Empire in 1025AD, under Emperor Basil II.
A particular difficulty is that many of the these famous places now go under different names than they did in the Classical or Crusader era. What I have done here is compile a list of cities -- listing first their old, perhaps more familiar, name in Italics, and then the new, Turkish name, in Bold. I have also included the briefest of historical notes for each city, to jog the gentle reader's memory. Enjoy!
- Constantinople – Istanbul. Capital of the Eastern Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Empires. Of course, it was, and still is, the seat of the successor of St. Andrew the Apostle, the Patriarch of Constantinople.
- Adrianople – Edirne. Site of the great battle where the Emperor Valens was defeated by Goths in 378AD.
- Nicaea – Iznik. Site of the first Ecumenical Council in 325AD where the Divinity of Christ was defined. In the 13th century a capital of the Byzantine Empire of Nicaea; this when Constantinople was ruled by a Latin Empire.
- Nicomedia – Izmit. This city was a Roman capital, and home of Diocletian, before Constantine shifted the seat to Constantinople.
- Smyrna – Izmir. Significant Greek port city; St. Polycarp was bishop here.
- Myra – Demre. This city had the distinction of being the See of St. Nicholas.
- Alexandretta – Iskenderun. Founded to commemorate a victory of Alexander the Great and a notable seaport.
- Antioch – Antakya. Seat of Patriarch. St. Peter the Apostle was once bishop here, in this city where the followers of Christ were first called Christians. It was also the center of a significant Crusader state.
- Angora – Ankara. The modern capital of Turkey was famous for its wool.
- Iconium – Konya. This city played a role in several Crusades that crossed Anatolia.
- Dorylaeum – Eskisehir. This was the site of a significant battle of the First Crusade.
- Caesarea – Kayseri. This was an important road junction and trade center. St. Basil the Great was bishop here.
- Sebasteia – Sivas. This was the home city of St. Blaise in Eastern Turkey.
- Edessa – Sanliurfa. There is much that could be said about this city, with its links to the Shroud of Turin, St. Thomas the Apostle, and the Crusader state.