Friday, August 31, 2012

Angelic Warfare Confraternity

A spiritual brotherhood certainly worthy of being better known is the Dominican-affiliated Angelic Warfare Confraternity.

The Confraternity is under the patronage of the Angelic Doctor, St. Thomas Aquinas (+1274AD).  Indeed, it takes its name from the episode in the life of St. Thomas when, in defense of holy purity, he drove off a woman-of-ill repute that his brothers had sent to his room to tempt him away from chastity.  At that point he was gird with a cord by angels and shielded from further attacks against purity.



The Confraternity seeks to encourage holiness and purity in its members under the patronage of St. Thomas Aquinas and the Blessed Virgin Mary.  To that end, the members pray for one another, and wear the cord and/or medal of St. Thomas.

The Angelic Warfare Confraternity was approved as a Confraternity of the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) for the whole Church by Pope Benedict XII in 1727AD.

Members of this brotherhood include, "St. Aloysius Gonzaga, Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati, Blessed Columba Rieti and Blessed Stephana Quinzan (who actively promoted the Confraternity among women)."

The website of the Confraternity can be found here: http://www.angelicwarfare.org/

This is the site where one can purchase the necessary items for membership: http://www.newhope-ky.org/angelicwarfare.html

Certainly a Confraternity emphasizing the Angelic Doctor, whose sublime writings do so much to increase our understanding of the Faith, and Holy Purity, so ignored and ridiculed in our world, is of great contemporary relevance.

Live well!

Thursday, August 30, 2012

2nd Manassas: Confederate Victory

On 30 August 1862, the Second Battle of Manassas would come to its dramatic conclusion.

Union Commander, General John Pope, confident of ultimate victory would launch one last massive assault on the defensive lines of Confederate Stonewall Jackson.  The honor would fall to the Union V Corps of General Fitz-John Porter.  Pope launched this assault with no consideration for the entire Corps of Confederate General Longstreet that sat poised to crush the flank of the Union Army.

File:Second Bull Run Aug30 1500.png
Map of the attack of the Union V Corps of Porter.  [Map by Hal Jespersen, www.cwmaps.com]

After an eerily quiet morning, Porter's 3PM assault broke the silence, and the final shred of momentum behind the Union army.  Confederate artillery shredded the attacking columns, and though some of Jackson's men resorted to throwing rocks -- ammunition having run out -- Stonewall's men held the line.

File:Second Bull Run Aug30 1600.png
Map of Longstreet's Confederate attack.  [Map by Hal Jespersen, www.cwmaps.com]

With that, Robert E. Lee unleashed the Corps of CS General James Longstreet, and the left flank of the Union army dissolved before it.  Only the stubborn resistance of scattered Union elements on Chinn Ridge gave the Union Army time to set up a defensive position along the Sudley Rd, protecting their line of retreat back to Centrevill and, ultimately, Washington, DC.

Nightfall on 30 August 1862 brought the Second Battle of Manassas to a conclusion -- a great Confederate victory, but the Union Army of Virginia, with attached elements of the Army of the Potomac, had survived and held their ground.

In the end, Lee lost 1,305 killed and 7,048 wounded, while Pope endured 13,824 killed, wounded, or captured.  Virginia was saved!

You can visit the ground at Manassas National Battlefield Park -- and see the dramatic ground of the V Corps attack at Deep Cut, and the crucial ground of Chinn Ridge: http://www.nps.gov/mana/index.htm

This site has a wealth of information on the battle: http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/second-manassas.html

Here is the NPS account of the battle: http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/va026.htm

Robert E. Lee, however, was not done yet.  As the defeated Union forces slinked back to Centreville, Lee devised a plan to get around the Union host and cut off its retreat to Washington, DC.

This attempt would be the occasion of the two forces clashing again at Chantilly on 1 September...

Live well!

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

2nd Manassas: Pope v. Jackson

On 29 August 1862 Stonewall Jackson's Confederate Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia would be sorely tested along the Unfinished Railroad at the Second Battle of Manassas.



Stonewall Jackson (CSA)   John Pope (USA)       Fitz-John Porter (USA)

Jackson had succeeded in picking a fight with Union General John Pope and his Army of Virginia, and now the force twice his size closed in on him for the kill.  Throughout the day of 29 August, Union forces would hammer Jackson's Corps.

As it happened Pope's attacks ended up piece-meal affairs, poorly supported, and never ultimately successful in breaking Jackson's line.  This was, in part, owing to a serious miscommunication with the Army commander and the commander of the Union V Corps detached from the Army of the Potomac, US General Fitz-John Porter.

Porter's Union V Corps was, the mind of the US General John Pope, supposed to march down the Manassas-Gainesville Rd (modern Wellington Rd) to turn the right flank of Jackson's Corps and cut off his retreat towards Thoroughfare Gap.  The problem was that Pope never made the crucial aspect of this movement clear to his subordinate and, indeed, his written orders stressed a need to guard against becoming isolated from lines of retreat back to Centreville.  Hence, Porter, on 29 August 1862, proceeded with caution towards Gainesville and Jackson's flank.  When he ran into the Confederate Cavalry of J.E.B. Stuart, horsemen who dragged branches to kick up dust and feign great numbers, Porter halted.  His fear of a massive force at his front would soon be realized as Longstreet's Corps did, in fact, move into place on Stonewall Jackson's flank that afternoon.  There was to be no flank attack.  Indeed, Robert E. Lee's army was reunited, and Pope was in serious trouble.

File:Second Bull Run Aug29 1200.png
Map of the situation at midday on 29 August 1862.  Porter is stalled, Longstreet now in position next to Jackson, and Pope focused totally on Jackson.  [Map by Hal Jespersen, www.cwmaps.com]

Meanwhile, US General John Pope oversaw a series of "diversionary" attacks on Jackson's line as he waited for Porter's V Corps to deliver the knock-out blow.  The multiple attacks, some of which gained initial success, all ended failures owing to lack of support and coordination.

Still, that evening, despite a stiff clash involving Longstreet's Corps, John Pope was confident of victory the next day.

You can visit the ground at Manassas National Battlefield Park along the Unfinished Railroad -- but do beware of ticks on the warmer months in that area: http://www.nps.gov/mana/index.htm

This site has a wealth of information on the battle: http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/second-manassas.html

Here is the NPS account of the battle: http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/va026.htm


Live well.

Tuesday, August 28, 2012

2nd Manassas: Thoroughfare Gap & Brawner Farm

Stonewall Jackson, having seized the attention of the Union Army of Virginia commander, US General John Pope, now needed to pick a fight on favorable ground, and prevent the Union army from escaping to the safety of the defense of Washington, DC.  At the same time, he needed to position himself so as to allow the other half of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, with Lee and Longstreet to link up with him.

It is for that reason that Jackon, after seizing the railroad Junction at Manassas, marched his Corps north during the night of 27-28 August to the Unfinished Railroad grade along Stony Ridge -- next to the battlefield of First Manassas.  This was good ground, and was a relatively short march from Thoroughfare Gap, through which Lee and Longstreet would have to lead their Corps to reach Jackson (they had been a day behind Jackson in departing, but progressed at a slower rate).

Union General John Pope, however, saw a great opportunity to crush this isolated part of the Confederate army, and sought an chance to "bag" the famed Stonewall Jackson.  He gave orders for his widely scattered Corps to join at the high ground of Centreville, and from there deal with Jackson.  Pope didn't actually know precisely where Stonewall Jackson had gone, but heard reports of his men headed for Centreville.

It was in this situation that the III Corps, US Army of Virginia, of US General Irvin McDowell found itself playing a crucial role on that 28 August 1862.  His III Corps would find itself in two key places that day -- next to the essential ground of Thoroughfare Gap, and on the line of march past Jackson's Corps to Centreville.  These would be the two fights of this day.

McDowell, sensing the strategic importance of the gap in the Bull Run Mountains known as Thoroughfare Gap, ordered one of his divisions, that of US General James Rickett's, to keep an eye on it.  Another division, that of US General Rufus King, he ordered down the Warrenton Turnpike towards Centreville.  Both divisions would see action!

Thoroughfare Gap
Sign marking the center of the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap.  You can read the full text and find the location here: http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=606

At Thoroughfare Gap, McDowell's concerns were validated when, that afternoon, CS General James Longstreet's Corps of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia arrived to join Stonewall Jackson -- and they had to pass through the Gap.  Rickett's Union Division, of only about 5,000 men, tried to block over 20,000 Confederates.  The bottleneck of the Gap, however, did allow this small Union force to delay the Southern advance, but it could do no more than delay.  Eventually Confederate forces gained the heights and passed through a gap to the north, Hopewell Gap, and Ricketts was forced to fall back.  US General Pope seemed little concerned with this development, however, and unfortunately for Ricketts, his division never received help.

You can read the NPS account of the fight at the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap here: http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/va025.htm


Jackson Opens Fire Marker
The sign marking the opening of the fight at Brawner Farm.  This link provides the full text and location, which is at the Manassas National Battlefield Park: http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=45952

Meanwhile, that same afternoon and evening, King's Division of the Union III Corps, on the march to Centreville, were set upon by Stonewall Jackson's forces near Groveton, Virginia in the immediate vicinity of the Brawner Farm.  Essentially, Stonewall Jackson, trying to prevent the Union army from joining at Centreville, a rather invulnerable position, picked a fight with Union General Pope by revealing his location near Groveton and picking a fight with King's Division.

File:Second Bull Run Aug28.png
Map of the fighting at Brawner Farm, between the Divisions of CS Gen. Ewell and US Gen. King.  [Map by Hal Jespersen, www.cwmaps.com]


The fighting at Brawner Farm, sometimes considered its own battle and a prelude to Second Manassas, and sometimes the first day of Second Manassas, was brutal, intense, and only came to a close with darkness that evening of 28 August 1862.  It was on this field that the Confederate Stonewall Brigade fought to a draw with the Union Iron Bridge.  The two sides pounded each other into the night at less than 100 yards distance.  CS General Richard Ewell would lose a leg in the action at Brawner Farm.  That afternoon and evening felled 1,150 Union troops and 1,250 Confederates, killed or wounded.

You might note the website of the action at Brawner Farm, that of the Manassas National Battlefield Park: http://www.nps.gov/mana/index.htm

The old Brawner farm house has been restored, and there is a splendid display on the Second Battle of Manassas -- including a fibre-optic battle map -- located in the house.  It is a must-visit if you go to Manassas Battlefield!

Live well!

Monday, August 27, 2012

2nd Manassas: Bull Run Bridge & Kettle Run

This week we observe the 150th Anniversary of the great campaign of the Second Battle of Manassas (or Bull Run), in Virginia.  Starting today, 27 August, I will, day by day, recount the events of this momentous battle -- considered by some to be the greatest victory of General Robert E. Lee, and, certainly, the catalyst for Lee's first invasion north of the Potomac River the next month.

After the fight at Cedar Mountain weeks before, the two main armies in Northern Virginia, US General John Pope's Army of Virginia and CS General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia sat facing one another along the Rappahannock River, with Pope on the Fauquier County (North/East) bank, and Lee on the Culpeper County (South/West) side.

Lee, however, needed to act quickly.  His force consisted of around 50,000 men, while Pope has a comparable number -- but as McClellan evacuated his US Army of the Potomac from the banks of the James River and added corps to Pope's force, Lee's window of opportunity for suppressing Pope was closing.

Robert E. Lee has already shown a degree of boldness by leaving Richmond virtually defenseless in the face of George B. McClellan's massive, but defeated, force.  Lee would be bold once more, this time counting on his "right arm," CS General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson.  Lee would send Jackson on a march around the right flank of the Union Army of Virginia -- splitting his force in half in the face of his enemy.

File:Northern Virginia Campaign Aug7-28.png
Map of the Northern Virginia Campaign of Second Manassas -- including Jackson's flank march to Manassas.  [Map by Hal Jespersen, www.cwmaps.com]

Stonewall Jackson, with about 25,000 men would begin their flank march on the morning on 25 August, reaching Marshall, Virginia that evening.  The next day, 26 August, they would march through Thoroughfare Gap and strike the Orange and Alexandria Railroad at Bristow Station late that night -- Jackson and his men had covered 55 miles in 34 hours, arriving in the rear of the Union army and right on their primary supply line of the O&A railroad.

Dawn of 27 August, today, in 1862AD, Stonewall Jackson's Corps seized the supply depots and Manassas Junction just a few miles up the railroad from Bristow.  They also had to prepare for twin fights that day.

Battle of Bull Run Bridge Marker
Sign marking the site of the Battle of Bull Run Bridge.  Click here for the full text and location: http://www.hmdb.org/Marker.asp?Marker=13287

US General Henry Halleck in Washington, DC, received word of the railroad line being cut, and, assuming this a minor cavalry raid, dispatched a brigade of New Jersey boys under US General George Taylor to chace them away and retake the Junction.  This force found not cavalry, but Jackson's Confederate infantry Corps at Manassas on that 27 August, and at the Battle of Bull Run Bridge, his force was devastated.


Battle of Kettle Run Marker
Sign marking the site of the Battle of Kettle Run.  For the full text and location, click here: http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=10745

Meanwhile, that afternoon and evening, Stonewall Jackson's rearguard, a Division under Prince William County local CS General Richard Ewell, executed a flawless fighting retreat, starting around Kettle Run and moving north through Bristow and the area of Broad Run.  Though pushed by the Union Division of Joseph Hooker, Ewell managed to delay the Union advance and give the rest of Jackson's Corps time to withdraw to Stony Ridge, along an unfinished railroad grade north of Manassas.  This fighting retreat is now known as the Battle of Kettle Run.

Here is the NPS account of the Battles of Bull Run Bridge and of Kettle Run: http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/va024.htm

It is on Stony Ridge that we will resume our narrative tomorrow.

Live well!

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Taxonomy of Gymnosperms

Last week I posted a summary of some of the taxonomical parts of the Angiosperms, the flowering seed plants.  My look at botanical taxonomy continues today with the other major group of seed plants -- the Gymnosperms or non-Flowering seed plants.

In reality, seed plants are considered by many taxonomists and botanists to be a superdivision within the plant kingdom.  Within this superdivision are five divisions (phyla).  Of these, the Angiosperm make but one division -- the other four are customarily linked as the Gymnosperm divisions.  They are, then, the non-flowering vascular seed plants.



File:Cyca-revoluta.jpg
Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) &      Sago Cycad (Cycas revoluta)


File:Ginkgo Biloba Leaves - Black Background.jpgFile:Welwitschia mirabilis(2).jpg
Gingko or Maidenhair Tree (Gingko biloba) &  Welwitschia (Welwitschia mirabilis)


I present here a summary of these four divisions of non-flowering seed plants.  Note, of course, that taxonomy, or the categorizing of living things, is not an area of total agreement and that my list is not exhaustive when it comes to families and the like.  Enjoy!

------------

Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta [Vascular Plants]
Superdivision Spermatophyta [Seed Plants]

Division Coniferophyta [Conifers]
·         Class Pinopsida
o   Order Pinales
§  Family Araucariaceae [Araucaria family]
§  Family Cephalotaxaceae [Plum Yew family]
§  Family Cupressaceae [Cypress family; cypress, red-cedar, some claim Taxodiaceae]
§  Family Pinaceae [Pine family; pine, spruce, fir, cedar, hemlock]
§  Family Podocarpaceae [Podocarpus family]
§  Family Taxodiaceae [Redwood family; redwood, sequoia, baldcypress]*
o   Order Taxales
§  Family Taxaceae [Yew family]


Division Cycadophyta [Cycads]
·         Class Cycadopsida
o   Order Cycadales
§  Family Cycadaceae [Cycad family]
§  Family Zamiaceae [Zamiad or Coontie family]


Division Ginkgophyta [Ginkgo]
·         Class Ginkgoopsida
o   Order Ginkgoales
§  Family Ginkgoaceae [Ginkgo family]
·         Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair-tree; only living species)


Division Gnetophyta [Gnetophytes]
·         Class Gnetopsida
o   Order Ephedrales
§  Family Ephedraceae [Mormon-tea family]
o   Order Gnetales
§  Family Gnetaceae [Gnetum family]
o   Order Welwitschiales*
§  Family Welwitschiaceae [Welwitschia family]
·         Welwitschia mirabilis

Nota bene: taxonomy is always a matter of debate and discussion – you may find different arrangements than those listed here.
Source: United States Department of Agriculture: http://plants.usda.gov/classification.html ; *- added from other sources.

------------

Live well!

Friday, August 17, 2012

USS Constitution vs. HMS Guerriere

This Sunday will be the Bicentennial of the great ship-to-ship Naval engagement between the USS Constitution (44 guns) and the HMS Guerriere (38 guns), during the War of 1812.  Interestingly, the Guerriere was built by the French, and captured by the Royal Navy in 1806AD.

On 19 August 1812AD, what is arguably the most famous vessel in the young United States Navy, the frigate USS Constitution, under the command of Isaac Hull (not to be confused with William Hull and Isaac Brock in Detroit!), met in combat the British frigate, HMS Guerriere, far off the coast of Nova Scotia.

File:USS Constitution vs Guerriere.jpg
USS Constitution vs. HMS Guerriere by Michel Corne (+1845AD)


In the end, the foremast of the Guerriere was brought down by the gunners of the Constitution, and along with it came the mainmast, leaving the British vessel with no choice but to strike her colors.  The Americans, after evacuating the British crew, burned the ship which was clearly in no condition to bring back to Boston, MA.  This was a great battle of the era of wooden ships and iron men!

This webpage has a splendid summary of the engagement, along with a number of excellent paintings of the battle: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/war1812/atsea/con-guer.htm

File:US Navy 101021-N-7642M-317 USS Constitution returns to her pier after an underway to celebrate her 213th launching day anniversary.jpg
The USS Constitution in Boston, Massachusetts in 2010AD.

This was the first of a number of striking American ship-to-ship victories of the War of 1812.  A bit of good news to lighten a country concerned about its failure on the Canadian front.

Live well!

Thursday, August 16, 2012

Bicentennial of the Fall of Detroit

Today, 16 August, in 1812AD, the American controlled fort and town of Detroit, in the Michigan Territory, surrendered to a British force, and the Union Jack replaced the Stars and Stripes over Detroit.

File:4756 detroit 1020.jpg
The Plan of Fort Detroit, circa 1790AD.

The American force, under the command of Governor William Hull of the Michigan Territory, numbering about 2,200, had earlier, in July, first invaded into British Canada in what is now Ontario.  The British capture of Mackinac in the north of the Michigan Territory, however, convinced Hull and the American army to fall back to the comparative safety of Detroit and give up the invasion.  There he requested reinforcements, deeply concerned about the native tribes in the area.


Governor William Hull of the Michigan Territory & Commander at Detroit

An attempt to resupply the Americans at Detroit had failed in early August, adding to the concern of the force there.
Isaac Brock portrait 1, from The Story of Isaac Brock (1908)-2.png
"The Hero of Upper Canada," Major General Isaac Brock (Left) & Tecumseh of the Shawnee (Right).

The British commander in the area, Isaac Brock, arrived on the Detroit River on 13 August with a contingent that included British redcoats, Canadian militia, and Indian allies -- numbering some 1,300 men in total.  Joining Brock was none other than the famous Shawnee, Tecumseh.  On the feast of the Assumption, Brock demanded the capitulation of Detroit, warning Hull, "it is far from my intention to join in a war of extermination, but you must be aware, that the numerous body of Indians who have attached themselves to my troops will be beyond control the moment the contest commences."  Hull rejected the demand, but an artillery bombardment and the approach of the British host broke the American resolve the next day.

File:Reddition de D├ętroit.jpg
The Surrender of Detroit by John Forster (+1938AD)

On 16 August 1812AD, Gov. William Hull surrendered not only the fort and town of Detroit, but his entire force, supplies, an American Naval Vessel (the Brig Adams), and the whole Michigan Territory to General Isaac Brock.  Brock would receive a knighthood and the title of "the Hero of Upper Canada" for his victory at Detroit.

The opening phases of the War of 1812 along the northern border of the United States had, thus far, been a disaster for America.

That autumn, in October, American initiative would take the war back to Ontario, Canada, and this time around the Niagara River.  Sir Isaac Brock would be waiting for them...

Live well!

Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Taxonomy of Monocots

Today we continue our little look at the field of Taxonomy, or the systematic classification of different species.

File:LiliumSuperbum1.jpg
The flower of the rather proud Tiger Lily or Turk's Cap Lily (Lilium superbum), of the eastern United States. The Lilies lend their name to the scientific name of the entire class of monocots!


Picking up where we left off, I present for you a taxonomic break-down of a class of plants, the Monots, which are the other half of the phylum or division of flowering plants, the angiosperms.  I begin with identifying the class within the larger taxonomic structure, and then proceed to the parts of the Monocots, the Class Liliopsida. I also include a common name for each family, along with the occasion common name of a species in the family aside from that implied by the common name of the family itself.  Please note that this list is not exhaustive.  Enjoy!



Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta [Vascular Plants]
Superdivision Spermatophyta [Seed Plants]
DIVISION MAGNOLIOPHYTA [Flowering Plants]
Class Liliopsida [Monocots]
·         Subclass Alismatidae [Various water plants]
·         Subclass Arecidae
o   Order Arales
§  Family Araceae [Arum family]
§  Family Lemnaceae [Duckweed family]
o   Order Arecales
§  Family Arecaceae [Palm family]
·         Subclass Commelinidae
o   Order Cyperales
§  Family Cyperaceae [Sedge family]
§  Family Poaceae [Grass family; corn, sugarcane, wheat, rice, oats]
o   Order Juncales
§  Family Juncaceae [Rush family]
o   Order Typhales
§  Family Typhaceae [Cattail family]

·         Subclass Liliidae
o   Order Liliales
§  Family Aloaceae [Aloe family]
§  Family Iridaceae [Iris family]
§  Family Liliaceae [Lily family; onions, chives]
o   Order Orchidales
§  Family Orchidaceae [Orchid family]
·         Subclass Zingiberidae
o   Order Bromeliales
§  Family Bromeliaceae [Bromeliad family; pineapples, Spanish moss]
o   Order Zingiberales
§  Family Musaceae [Banana family]
§  Family Zingiberaceae [Ginger family]


Nota bene: taxonomy is always a matter of debate and discussion – you may find different arrangements than those listed here.
Source: United States Department of Agriculture: http://plants.usda.gov/classification.html


At some future date, we can visit the Gymnosperms...

Live well!

Monday, August 13, 2012

Taxonomy of Dicots

The field of Taxonomy, or the systematic classification of different species, is certainly a useful and rather interesting pursuit.  Much can be learned about a speciman by the company it keeps, and the genus or family into which it is classed.

File:Magnolia flower Duke campus.jpg
The flower of the Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora).  The Magnolias lend their name to the scientific name of the division of flowering plants in general and also to the entire class of dicots!


Today I present for you a taxonomical break-down of a class of plants, the Dicots, which, along with Monocots, make up the phylum or division of flowering plants, the Angiosperms.  Certainly even the casual botanist will recognize a great many names in the following list.  I begin with identifying the class within the larger taxonomical structure, and then proceed to the parts of the Dicots, the Class Magnoliopsida.  I also include a common name for each family, along with the occasion common name of a species in the family aside from that implied by the common name of the family itself.  Please note that this list is not exhaustive.  Enjoy!


Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta [Vascular Plants]
Superdivision Spermatophyta [Seed Plants]
DIVISION MAGNOLIOPHYTA [Flowering Plants]

Class Magnoliopsida [Dicots]
·         Subclass Asteridae
o   Order Asterales
§  Family Asteraceae [Aster family; composites]
o   Order Dipsacales
§  Family Caprifoliaceae [Honeysuckle family]
§  Family Dipsacaceae [Teasel family]
o   Order Gentianales
§  Family Apocynaceae [Dogbane family]
§  Family Asclepiadaceae [Milkweed family]
o   Order Lamiales
§  Family Lamiaceae [Mint family; basil, oregano]
o   Order Plantaginales
§  Family Plantaginaceae [Plantain family]
o   Order Rubiales
§  Family Rubiaceae [Madder Family; coffee]
o   Order Scrophulariales
§  Family Bignoniaceae [Trumpet-Creeper family; catalpa]
§  Family Oleaceae [Olive family; ash]
o   Order Solanales
§  Family Polemoniaceae [Phlox family]
§  Family Solanaceae [Potato family; nightshade, tomatoes, tobacco, bell peppers]

·         Subclass Caryophyllidae
o   Order Caryophyllales
§  Family Cactaceae [Cactus family]
§  Family Caryophyllaceae [Pink family; carnations]
§  Family Phytolaccaceae [Pokeweed family]

·         Subclass Dilleniidae
o   Order Capparales
§  Family Brassicaceae [Mustard family; cabbage, broccoli, turnip]
o   Order Ericales
§  Family Ericaceae [Heath family; rhododendron, mountain laurel]
o   Order Nepenthales
§  Family Droseraceae [Sundew family; venus fly-trap]
§  Family Sarraceniaceae [Pitcher-plant family]
o   Order Salicales
§  Family Salicaceae [Willow family; willows, true poplars]
o   Order Theales
§  Family Theaceae [Tea family]
o   Order Violales
§  Family Cucurbitaceae [Cucumber family; squash]
§  Family Violaceae [Violet family]

·         Subclass Hamamelididae
o   Order Fagales
§  Family Betulaceae [Birch family; hazelnut, alder]
§  Family Fagaceae [Beech family; beech, chestnut, oak]
o   Order Hamamelidales
§  Family Hamamelidaceae [Witch-hazel family; sweetgum]
§  Family Platanaceae [Plane-tree family; sycamore]
o   Order Juglandales
§  Family Juglandaceae [Walnut family; walnuts, hickory]
o   Order Urticales
§  Family Moraceae [Mulberry family]
§  Family Ulmaceae [Elm family]

·         Subclass Magnoliidae
o   Order Laurales
§  Family Lauraceae [Laurel family; sassafras, avocado]
o   Order Magnoliales
§  Family Annonaceae [Custard-apple family; pawpaw]
§  Family Magnoliaceae [Magnolia family; yellow poplar]
o   Order Piperales
§  Family Piperaceae [Pepper family]

·         Subclass Rosidae
o   Order Apiales
§  Family Apiaceae [Carrot family; celery, Queen Anne’s Lace]
§  Family Araliaceae [Ginseng family; Hercules-club]
o   Order Celastrales
§  Family Aquifoliaceae [Holly family]
o   Order Cornales
§  Family Cornaceae [Dogwood family]
o   Order Fabales
§  Family Fabaceae [Pea family; legumes]
o   Order Geraniales
§  Family Balsaminaceae [Touch-me-not family]
§  Family Geraniaceae [Geranium family]
o   Order Rhamnales
§  Family Vitaceae [Grape family]
o   Order Rosales
§  Family Crassulaceae [Stonecrop family; jade plant]
§  Family Hydrangeaceae [Hydrangea family]
§  Family Rosaceae [Rose family; apples, peaches]
o   Order Sapindales
§  Family Aceraceae [Maple family]
§  Family Anacardiaceae [Sumac family; poison-ivy]
§  Family Hippocastanaceae [Horse-chestnut family; buckeyes]
§  Family Meliaceae [Mahogany family]
§  Family Rutaceae [Rue family; citrus fruits, i.e., oranges, lemons]
§  Family Simaroubaceae [Quassia family; ailanthus]

Nota bene: taxonomy is always a matter of debate and discussion – you may find different arrangements than those listed here.
Source: United States Department of Agriculture: http://plants.usda.gov/classification.html


We shall have revisit the subject tomorrow with the Monocots...

Live well!