St. Thomas Aquinas by Fra Bartolomeo (+1517AD)
What is man? The great Doctor of the Church, St. Thomas Aquinas (+1274), in his Summa Theologiae, in the Questions of the Prima Pars that form the Treatise on Man, gives a rather full and helpful exposition of this question. Man, a rational animal, whose powers can be classed as follows:
Powers or Faculties of Man
Vegetal Faculties [Plants]
· Nutritive (Feeding)
· Augmentative (Growing)
· Generation (Reproducing)
Cf. Summa Theologiae, I Pars, Question 78, Articles 1 & 2
Sentient Faculties [Animals]
· Sensing (interior & exterior senses)
Five Exterior Senses: Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, Smell
Four Interior Senses: Memory, Imagination, Consciousness, Instinct
· Appetizing (Desiring)
· Movement (Local motion)
Cf. ST, I, Q. 78, A. 1, 3, 4
Text of Pars I, Question 78, which deals with the vegetive and sensitive powers found here: http://www.newadvent.org/summa/1078.htm
Intellective (Spiritual) Faculties [Men]
· Intellect (Thinking)
· Will (Choosing)
Cf. ST, I, Q. 79, 82, 83 [See summary below]
St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, Treatise on Man
Intellect, Question 79Full text here: http://www.newadvent.org/summa/1079.htm
Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, Question 79, Article 2:
Whether the Intellect is a Passive Power?
Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, Question 79, Article 8:
Whether Reason is distinct from the Intellect?
Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, Question 79, Article 11:
Whether the Speculative and Practical Intellects are Distinct Powers?
Will, Question 82Full text here: http://www.newadvent.org/summa/1082.htm
Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, Question 82, Article 1:
Whether the Will desires something of Necessity?
Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, Question 82, Article 3:
Whether the Will is a Higher Power than the Intellect?
Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, Question 82, Article 4:
Whether the Will moves the Intellect?
Free Will, Question 83Full text here: http://www.newadvent.org/summa/1083.htm
Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, Question 83, Article 1:
Whether Man has Free-Will?